Month: August 2014

Pegli

Pegli

Pegli (Pêgi inGenovese) is a residential neighborhood located on the western outskirts of Genoa bordered to the east by Multedo via the  bridge over the river and west of Varenna with Pra ‘.

Once a renowned health resort, is still the district west of Genoa that less has suffered the consequences of industrialization and has managed to maintain, at least in part, its ancient tourist. Even today it is popular in the summer by some foreign tourists. Retains the appearance of a fishing village to a time and thanks to the mild climate all year round, with its vast green areas  and the presence of numerous villas and museums of artistic and cultural, is still considered as one of the most beautiful and characteristic of the city.

Its name derives from the “Pyla Veituriorum” founded, as others in the area, from the Ligurian tribe Veturii.

The past can not be erased, who now comes to Pegli can be seen for more than two kilometers a stunning array of historic buildings surrounded by fishermen’s houses, remains of medieval and nineteenth-century buildings; the old town stretches with a maze of narrow streets and small squares that lead up to the “Palazzo del Papa” which refers to memory (recent) of Benedict XV, born Giacomo della Chiesa, the pope who called the first world war looming on ‘Europe useless massacre.

Notable throughout Pegli is the space that occupies the green due to the presence of numerous private villas and vast historical parks of great value, such as Villa Doria Centurion (115000 m² in a state of abandonment), Villa Durazzo-Pallavicini (97000 m² entrance fee , in deplorable state of decay), Villa Banfi Lomellini (18,000 m²) and Lomellini Villa Rosa (12,000 m²). All together occupy a total surface area of ​​242,000 m² making sure that the district is one of the richest in the city’s green.

The Villa Doria Centurion is a sixteenth century villa Pegli, Genoa.

The villa owes its present appearance to the work of Vannone who built it in 1592 on commission from Giovanni Andrea Doria.

He had two phases for the interior decoration: the first and the second mannerist Baroque, by Lazzaro Tavarone.

The villa is surrounded by a large park of 115,000 square meters in 2012 he was elected one of the twelve most beautiful parks in Italy. Inside arise a lookout tower with a square base built in 1591 and an artificial lake fed by the Rio Bows and originally connected by a wooden bridge; the center of the lake stands the elliptical amphitheater built by the architect Galeazzo Alessi Perugia, complete with fountains and statues of nymphs and satyrs.

fotografia

 

The Villa Durazzo-Pallavicini is a villa with notable 19th century park in the English romantic style and a small botanical garden. The villa now houses the Museo di Archeologia Ligure, and is located at Via Pallavicini, 13, immediately next to the railway station in Pegli, a suburb of Genoa, Italy. The park and botanical garden are open daily.

The estate was begun in the late 17th century by Clelia Durazzo Grimaldi, who established the Giardino botanico Clelia Durazzo Grimaldi at that time. Today’s remarkable park was created by her nephew Ignazio Alessandro Pallavicini after he inherited the property.

The park was designed by Michele Canzio, set designer for the Teatro Carlo Felice, and built between 1840 and 1846. It covers some 97,000 m² of hillside behind the villa. Although recognizably in the English romantic style, the garden is highly theatric, to the point of being organized as a series of scenes forming a play with prologue and three acts (Return to Nature, Memory, Purification). Structures and statues through the garden form focal points to this libretto.

When the park opened in September 1846, on the occasion of the VIII Congresso degli Scienziati Italiani, it quickly gained national fame. In 1928 its current owner, Matilde Gustinani, donated both park and botanical garden to Genoa for use as a public park. Through the remainder of the 20th century, the garden fell into some disrepair, and indeed was threatened in 1972 by construction of a nearby highway. Its restoration began in 1991, however, in honor of Columbus’ discovery of America. As of 2006 about half of the park is open for visitors.

The park contains two ponds, a dozen notable structures, various statues, and an extensive grotto. The grotto represents a Dantesque Inferno, with walkways and subterranean lake through which the visitor may ascend to Paradise. In former years, visitors could explore the grotto by boat. Structures include a Coffee House in the shape of triumphal arch, Rustic House, Madonna’s Chapel, Mausoleum of the Captain, Temple of Diana, Flower House, Turkish Temple, Obelisk, and Chinese Pagoda.

The park also contains a number of plantings of botanical interest, including mature specimens of Araucaria bidwilli, Cedrus libani, Cinnamomum camphora’, Jubaea chilensis, Notelaea excelsa, Firmiana simplex,Quercus suber, Podocarpus macrophillus, lots of extotic palms and a wonderful stand of some 160 Camellia japonica.

A New Life – Strange Strange Strange

Wake Up and La Vita Continua

Ingredients

Suffering Sofferenza
Grief Lutto
Shock Forte Emozione
Pain Dolore
Bewilderment Smarrimento
Loss Perdita
Fear Paura
Lost Perso
Freedom Libertà
Risk Rischio
Stubborness Ostinazione
Fortune Fortuna
Soul Anima
Good Luck Buona sorte
Hard Work Lavoro duro
Fatique Fatica
Position of the Planets Posizione dei Pianeti
Being in the right place at the right time Essere nel posto giusto al momento giusto
Passion Passione
Chance Possibilità
Realism Realismo
Sensations Sensazioni
Dreams Sogni
Love Amore
A pinch of hazard Un pizzico di pericolo
A small drop of madness Una piccola goccia di follia

Just Mix – Don’t Stir

 

Past Present Future

10 Seconds from my new home

Fig-MuseoNavaleVillaDoriaPegli-01[1]

5 Minutes from my new home

villa-pallavicini-pegli[1]

5 Minutes in another direction

panorama%20pegli[1]

Reality – We are part of God

Life is strange.

Bumped into this here : http://educate-yourself.org/mbc/index.shtml

We are much more than what we appear to be. We base our perception of ourselves on what we see in the mirror. This physical perception is reinforced by society, our schools, and even our religions. We are alone, we think, fending off the wolves who would devour us and clinging to those who offer us support and loving care. Lord Jesus, Mother Mary, Lord Krishna, Lord Buddha, Mohammed, Zoarastra, etc. are thought of as Prophets or Saviors of Mankind who exist somewhere out there. When we pray to Them, we hope they can hear us out there and will come to our rescue when we need Them to save us from some dire situation. God is typically viewed as a Father figure, often depicted as a very muscular looking old man with a long white beard who is sitting on a throne in Heaven. Many religions reinforce this view of separation. Little, insignificant Us and big, powerful Them. Of course, many religions also teach us that their anointed representatives are necessary middlemen required to represent our interests before God, sort of like metaphysical lawyers. And you know how beneficial and necessary lawyers are, don’t you?

I’m being a little facetious, but I’m trying to get across the point that a fundamental misdirection has been taught by many organized religions that was never taught by the Founder of that religion. This misdirection did not come about by accident. It was intentional. It is the work of men who sought to gather power and privilege to themselves using the pretext of being earthly representatives of God. The purpose was to create a hierarchy of controlling elites at the top and the “‘followers” down below who were expected to pay the bills. A similar hierarchy evolved in the secular world with the idea of kingship/royalty and their “subjects” who again, were expected to pay (in some manner) for the privilege of being ruled and controlled. The true teachings of Christ and many other great spiritual teachers of antiquity were twisted and distorted by these elites desiring to create a paradigm of control and obedience to them. This is not what Christ taught or wanted. Jesus said that “The Kingdom of God is Within”. And so it is.

What did He mean? He meant that God exists within us at all times. We are part of God. We are not separated from God. We don’t have to go looking for Him because we already have Him within every molecule and atom of our being. In fact, none of us are truly separate from each other. It only appears that way. It’s an illusion, although it’s hard to accept that from our limited perspective. We are all part of God and God pervades everything. He is All That Is.

Now once you start to realize that, doors begin to open. You no longer feel so alone and fearful. You aren’t battling the Dark Forces of the universe by yourself, you now realize, but rather you have a great deal of help and support at your disposal. You are a part of God and God is a part of you.. You are an integral part of a greater Reality. A Divine Nature dwells within you since you are born of the Father and the Father is Divinity itself. Therefore, you have friends in very high places. The ancient Hindu scriptures wrote of these truths eons ago.

If you study the writings of yoga masters, you will come across the concept of Athman (Atman), or the Godhead figure within. The Soul and Atman are not exactly the same, but the Atman exist within the Soul. The Soul still retains the outer mantle of sense perception and carries the karmic baggage of previous lives. The Atman is completely detached and free of all sense desires or aversions. It is possible to perceive and experience the Atman while in this physical life. When you do, you are free. You can experience total bliss that will exceed anything your imagination can conjure.You will never view the world and its turmoil and triumphs in the same way, ever again.

Zenéize

Vocabolâi do zenéize de Zêna

In grafîa ofiçiâ: Grande dizionario della lingua genovese

O zenéize de Zêna o prezénta bén bén di vocabolâi che pêuan êse divîzi in doî grùppi: i vocabolâi stòrichi e i vocabolâi ciù recénti.
Méntre i prìmmi són stæti fæti pe mostrâ l’italiàn, quelli ciù recénti saiéiva bén che fîsan fæti pe mostrâ o zenéize e sorviatùtto a grafîa. Ma-a no l’é coscì. Into scrîto ciù picìn se peu lêze, pe ògni vocabolâio, o pài de l’Académia.

Proverbi,Proverbs

A barba canua, a fantinetta a ghe sta dua.
A chi ha la barba bianca, la fanciulla sta in guardia.
Young girls should watch out for old men with grey beards
dal latino: Culta puella senem fugit, cioè: La giovane colta fugge l’anziano.

A quæ de sposâ a l’è comme quella de cagâ, quande a ven bezeugna andâ..
La voglia di sposarci e come quella di defecare, quando arriva, bisogna andare.
Wanting to get married is like going to the toilet, when you get there , you want to go

A moæ di belinoin a l’é de lungo gräia.
La mamma degli imbecilli è sempre incinta.
The wife of a stupid man is always pregnant

A mëgio mëxinn-a a l’è o decotto de cantinn-a.
La miglior medicina è il “decotto” di cantina.
The best medicine is the decotto in a wine cellar

Arvî cioî cioî
Aprile piovere piovere.
April rains, rains

A Bella de Torriggia che tutti voean e nisciun a piggia.
La bella di Torriglia che tutti vogliono e nessuno se la prende.
The beauty of Torriglia, everybody wants her, nobody takes her.

Ben fæto pe forsa o no vä ‘na scorsa
Ben fatto per forza non vale niente.
Something which is done grudginly isn’t worth anything

Pescoèi de canna, caccioèi da visco e stramoèi da cristo son i ciu abbelinae co se segge mai visto.
Pescatori con la canna, cacciatori con il vischio e trasmutatori, stupidi così non s’è mai visto.

Chi no sappa no lappa.
Chi non zappa non mangia la zuppa: chi non lavora non mangia.
Who doesn’t work doesn’t eat

Chi l’e staeto bruxou da-a menestra cada o sciuscia in ta freida.
Chi si è bruciato con la minestra calda, soffia sulla fredda.
Who has been burned by hot soup, blows on the cold soup

Chi veu vedde un cattivo fasse arraggiâ un bon.
Chi vuol vedere un cattivo faccia arrabbiare un buono.
Who wants to see an angry face, make a happy face angry

Chi no cianze no tetta.
Chi non piange non tetta (ossia non succhia il latte dal seno). Significato metaforico: chi non si lamenta non ottiene nulla.
Who doesn’t lament doesn’t obtain anything

Dio m’avvarde da-i beghin e da chi va in gëxa tutte e mattin.
Dio mi guardi dai bigotti e da chi va in chiesa tutte le mattine.
God protect me from the bigots who go to church every morning

Dio t’avvarde da chi lëze un libbro solo.
Dio ti guardi da chi legge un libro solo.
God protect me from who has read only one book

Dònne, galinn-e e òche, tegnine pòche
Donne, galline e oche, tenerne poche.
Women,hens and geese, keep then for a short time only

Dònna che-a mescia l’anca, s’à nu l’è, pocu ghe mànca.
Donna che scuote l’anca (sculetta), se non lo è (di facili costumi), poco ci manca.
A woman who wags her ass, if she isn’t an easy woman, just wait

Fà du bèn a Giuan c’u te cagherà in man
Fai del bene a Giovanni e sarai mal ripagato.
Do any good to John and he’ll repay you badly

Frevâ o curto l’è pezo che o turco
Febbraio il corto è peggio del turco.
February is short and worse than the Turks
Reference to the coldest month, February, who, it was said, sometimes did more damage (and deaths) of the Turkish fleet that assaulted the Ligurian coast.

Se frevâ no frevezza, marso ghe pensa
Se febbraio non “febbraieggia” ci pensa marzo. Se febbraio non è rigido, il freddo arriva a marzo
If it isn’t cold in February, March will be

Finché e prìe anniàn a-o fòndu, d’abelinae ghe ne saiàn de lungu.
Finché le pietre affonderanno, non mancheranno gli sciocchi.
While the stones still sink to the bottom of a pool, we won’t be short of idiots.

I gondoin e i funzi náscian sensa semenali.
Gli stupidi e i funghi nascono senza seminarli.
Stupid people and mushrooms grow without any need to sow them

I sbagli di mëghi l’asconde a tæra, quelli di ricchi i dinæ.
Gli errori dei medici li nasconde la terra, quelli dei ricchi li nasconde il denaro.
The doctors errors are hid in the ground, errors of the rich by money

I parenti en comme e scarpe, ciù son streiti ciù fan mä
I parenti sono come le scarpe, più son stretti, più fanno male.
Relatives are like shoes, the tighter they are, the more they hurt

L’è mëgio ëse cöa de grigoa che cû de lion.
È meglio essere la coda di una lucertola che il sedere di un leone.
It’s better to be a lizards tail, than a lions backside

L’é megio avei e braghe sguaræ ‘nto cù che o cù sguaròu ‘nte brâghe
È meglio avere i pantaloni rotti nel culo, che il culo rotto nei pantaloni.
It’s better to have holes in the back of the trousers rather than a broken hole in your backside.

Né a mazzo né a Mason no levate o pelisson
né a maggio né a Masone non levarti la pelliccia.
In March or Masone(a village ina valley near Genova where sun never shines), don’t take off your fur coat

No ghé bella reuza ch’a no divente ûn grattacû.
Non c’è bella rosa che non diventi un cinorrodo.
Even a beautiful rose becomes a rosehip

O corvo dixe a o merlo: “cumme t’è neigru!”.
Il corvo dice al merlo «Come sei nero!».
The crow says to the blackbird “How black you are”

O cù e i dinê no se mostran a nisciun.
Il sedere e i soldi non si mostrano a nessuno.
Your backside and your money, don’t shiow them to anyone

O meize de çiòule o ven pe tûtti.
Il mese delle cipolle [del pianto] viene per tutti.
The time for crying abnd grief will come to everyone

Ogni cäso in to cû se fa ûn passo avanti.
Ogni calcio nel sedere si fa un passo avanti.Sbagliando si impara.
Every kick in the ass is a step ahead (Learn by mistakes)

Ommu piccin, tutto belin.
Uomo basso, tutto pisello.
Small man, all penis

Pe-o mâ de testa: mangiâ; pe-o mâ de pansa: cagâ.
Per il mal di testa: magiare, per il mal di pancia: andare di corpo.
For a headache: eat, for an upset stomach, go to the toilet

Pestâ l’ægua in to mortä.
Pestare l’acqua nel mortaio, perdere tempo.
Stempering water in a mortar is a waste of time

Passòu o monte de Portofin moggé caa torno fantin
Oltrepassato il monte di Portofino, moglie cara ritorno celibe.
Il monte di Portofino è preso come uscita dal mare di Genova, per cui, secondo il detto, il marinaio diventa franco da ogni legame anche affettivo, in questo caso con la moglie.
The sailor when he passes Portofino on his ship, leaves behind all his affective duty to his wife

Sbaglia finn-a o præve in to dî messa.
Perfino il prete sbaglia nel dir messa.

Sciûsciâ e sciorbî no se pêu.
Soffiare e succhiare non si può.
Blow out and suck in at the same time is impossibile

Se a-a sèia ti mangi comme ‘n treuggio, a-a neutte no ti strenzi l’euggio.
Se la sera mangi come ad un trogolo, di notte non chiudi occhio.
If you eat too much in the evening, you won’t sleepp at night

Se i disonesti foissan nuvie, ghe saieiva de longo o diluvio.
Se i disonesti fossero nuvole, ci sarebbe sempre il diluvio.
If the dishonest were clouds, there would be a flood for a long time

Se u cân sè gratta è balle, a-a lévre scappa in-ta valle.
Se il cane si gratta le palle, la lepre scappa nella valle.
‘Se stai con le mani in mano non combini nulla.’
If you stand around doing nothing, you won’t obtain anything.

10 George Orwell Quotes That Predicted Life In 2014 America

See Jack London’s The Iron Heel

orwell1

 

1) “Nella nostra epoca non vi è alcuna cosa come ‘tenere fuori dalla politica.’ Tutte le questioni sono questioni politiche, e la politica stessa è una massa di menzogne​​, evasioni, follia, l’odio e la schizofrenia.”

2) “Tutta la guerra di propaganda, tutte le urla e le menzogne ​​e l’odio, viene invariabilmente da persone che non stanno combattendo.”

3) “La guerra contro un paese straniero si verifica solo quando le classi abbienti pensano che stanno per trarre profitto da esso.”

4) “Il concetto stesso di verità oggettiva sta svanendo fuori dal mondo. Bugie passeranno alla storia. ”

5) “In tempi di menzogna, dire la verità è un atto rivoluzionario.”

6) “Il giornalismo sta stampando quello che qualcun altro non vuole stampato: tutto il resto è pubbliche relazioni.”

7) “Nella vita reale è sempre l’incudine che il martello si rompe …”

8) “Il nazionalista non solo non disapprova le atrocità commesse dalla sua parte, ma ha una notevole capacità di nemmeno sentir parlare di loro.”

9) “Minacce alla libertà di parola, la scrittura e l’azione, anche se spesso banali in isolamento, sono cumulativi nel loro effetto e, se non controllati, portano ad una mancanza di rispetto generale per i diritti del cittadino.”

10) “Se vuoi un’immagine del futuro, immagina uno stivale che schiaccia una faccia umana-per sempre.”

orwell2 obama big brother

 

saboteur365

orwell1

1) “In our age there is no such thing as ‘keeping out of politics.’ All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred and schizophrenia.”

2) “All the war-propaganda, all the screaming and lies and hatred, comes invariably from people who are not fighting.”

3) “War against a foreign country only happens when the moneyed classes think they are going to profit from it.”

4) “The very concept of objective truth is fading out of the world. Lies will pass into history.”

5) “In a time of deceit, telling the truth is a revolutionary act.”

6) “Journalism is printing what someone else does not want printed: everything else is public relations.”

7) “In real life it is always the anvil that breaks the hammer…”

8) “The nationalist not only does not disapprove of atrocities committed by his own side, but he has a…

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Is this a mosquito?

Is this a mosquito?No. It’s an insect spy drone for urban areas, already in production, funded by the US Government. It can be remotely controlled and is equipped with a camera and a microphone. It can land on you, and it may have the potential to take a DNA sample or leave RFID tracking nanotechnology on your skin. It can fly through an open window, or it can attach to your clothing until you take it in your home.

 Si tratta di una zanzara?No. E ‘un insetto drone spia per le aree urbane, già in produzione, finanziato dal governo degli Stati Uniti. Può essere controllato a distanza ed è dotato di una fotocamera e un microfono. Si può atterrare su di voi, e può avere il potenziale per prendere un campione di DNA o lasciare RFID di monitoraggio delle nanotecnologie sulla vostra pelle. Si può volare attraverso una finestra aperta, oppure può attaccare ai vestiti fino a quando si prende in casa tua.

What to do with the Irish ?

 

From Worse to Worser

They couldn’t kill them all

The Irish Slaves –  No Previous Convictions Necessary

irish-need-not-apply[1]

At the beginning of the 17th Century, in the reign of James I of England, England faced a problem: what to do with the Irish. They had been practicing genocide against the Irish since the reign of Elizabeth, but they couldn’t kill them all. Some had been banished, and some had gone into voluntary exile, but there were still just too many of them.

So James I encouraged the sale of the Irish as slaves to the New World colonies, not only America but Barbados and South America. The first recorded sale of Irish slaves was to a settlement along the Amazon in South America in 1612. However, before that there were probably many unofficial arrangements, since the Irish were of no importance and details of how they were dealt with were not deemed necessary.

In 1625, the King issued a proclamation that all Irish political prisoners were to be transported to the West Indies and sold as slave labor to the planters there. In 1637, a census showed that 69% of the inhabitants of Monsarrat in the West Indies were Irish slaves. The Irish had a tendency to die in the heat, and were not as well suited to the work as African slaves, but African slaves had to be bought. Irish slaves could be kidnapped if there weren’t enough prisoners, and of course, it was easy enough to make Irish prisoners by manufacturing some petty crime or other. This made the Irish the preferred “livestock” for English slave traders for 200 years.

In 1641, one of the periodic wars in which the Irish tried to overthrow the English misrule  in their land took place. As always, this rebellion eventually failed. As a result, in the 12 years following the revolt, known as the Confederation War, the Irish population fell from 1,466,000 to 616,000. Over 550,000 Irishmen were killed, and 300,000 were sold as slaves. The women and children who were left homeless and destitute had to be dealt with , so they were rounded up and sold, too.

But even though it did not seem that things could get worse, with the advent of Oliver Cromwell, they did. In the 1650’s, thousands more Irish were killed, and many more were sold into slavery. Over 100,000 Irish Catholic children were taken from their parents and sold as slaves, many to Virginia and New England. Unbelievably but truly, from 1651 to 1660 there were more Irish slaves in America than the entire non-slave population of the colonies!

In 1652, Cromwell instigated the Ethnic Cleansing of Ireland. He demanded that all Irish people were to resettle west of the Shannon, in arid, uninhabitable land, or be transported to the West Indies. The Irish refused to relocate peaceably, for the most part, since they couldn’t survive if they did.

A law, published in 1657, read:

“Those who fail to transplant themselves into Connaught
(Ireland’s Western Province) or (County) Clare within six
months… Shall be attained of high treason… Are to be sent
into America or some other parts beyond the seas…”(1)

Any who attempted to return would no killa no party

“suffer the pains of death as
felons by virtue of this act, without benefit of Clergy.”(2)

The soldiers were encouraged to kill the Irish who refused to move; it was certainly not considered a crime. But the slave trade was so profitable that it was much more lucrative to round them up and sell them. Gangs went out to fill quotas by capturing whoever came across their path; they were so industrious that they accidentally captured a number of French and English and several thousand Scots in the process. By Cromwell’s death, at least 100,000 Irish men, women, and children had been sold in the West Indies, Virginia, and New England. While most were sold to the sugar planters in Barbados, Jamaica and throughout the West Indies, some writers assert that at least 20,000 were sold to the American colonies. (3) The earliest record of Irish slaves in America was in 1620, with the arrival of
200 slaves. Most of the documentation, however, comes from the West Indies.

In 1742, a document entitled Thurloe’s State Papers, published in London, opined that:

“..It was a measure beneficial to Ireland, which was
thus relieved of a population that might trouble the planters; it
was a benefit to the people removed, which might thus be made
English and Christians … a great benefit to the West India
sugar planters, who desired men and boys for their bondsmen, and
the women and Irish girls… To solace them.”(4)

Note the chilling insouciance of the purpose stated for the women and Irish girls. . to “solace” the sugar planters. Also, to our way of thinking, the Irish were Christians, but to the Protestant English, Catholics were considered Papist, and Papists weren’t Christians.

So for the entire 17th Century, from 1600 until 1699, there were many more Irish sold as slaves than Africans. There are records of Irish slaves well into the 18th Century.

Many never made it off the ships. According to written record, in at least one incident 132 slaves, men, women, and children, were dumped overboard to drown because ships’ supplies were running low. They were drowned because the insurance would pay for an “accident,” but not if the slaves were allowed to starve. Typical death rates on the ships were from 37% to 50%.

In the West Indies, the African and Irish slaves were housed together, but because the African slaves were much more costly, they were treated much better than the Irish slaves. Also, the Irish were Catholic, and Papists were hated among the Protestant planters. An Irish slave would endure such treatment as having his hands and feet set on fire or being strung up and beaten for even a small infraction. Richard Ligon, who witnessed these things first-hand and recorded them in a history of Barbados he published in 1657, stated:

“Truly, I have seen cruelty there done to servants as I did not think one Christian could
have done to another.”(5)

According to Sean O’Callahan, in To Hell or Barbados, Irish men and women were inspected like cattle there, just as the Africans were. In addition, Irish slaves, who were harder to distinguish from their owners since they shared the same skin color, were branded with the owner’s initials, the women on the forearm and the men on the buttocks. O’Callahan goes on to say that the women were not only sold to the planters as sexual slaves but were often sold to local brothels as well. He states that the black or mulatto overseers also often forced the women to strip while working in the fields and often used them sexually as well.(6)

The one advantage the Irish slaves had over the African slaves was that since they were literate and they did not survive well in the fields, they were generally used as house servants, accountants, and teachers. But the gentility of the service did not correlate to the punishment for infractions. Flogging was common, and most slave owners did not really care if they killed an easily replaceable, cheap Irish slave.

While most of these slaves who survived were eventually freed after their time of service was completed, many leaving the islands for the American colonies, many were not, and the planters found another way to insure a free supply of valuable slaves. They were quick to “find solace” and start breeding with the Irish slave women. Many of them were very pretty, but more than that, while most of the Irish were sold for only a period of service, usually about 10 years assuming they survived, their children were born slaves for life. The planters knew that most of the mothers would remain in servitude to remain with their children even after their service was technically up.

The planters also began to breed the Irish women with the African male slaves to make lighter skinned slaves, because the lighter skinned slaves were more desirable and could be sold for more money. A law was passed against this practice in 1681, not for moral reasons but because the practice was causing the Royal African Company to lose money. According to James F. Cavanaugh, this company, sent 249 shiploads of slaves to the West Indies in the 1680’s, a total of 60,000 African and Irish, 14,000 of whom died in passage.(7)

While the trade in Irish slaves tapered off after the defeat of King James in 1691, England once again shipped out thousands of Irish prisoners who were taken after the Irish Rebellion of 1798. These prisoners were shipped to America and to Australia, specifically to be sold as slaves.

No Irish slave shipped to the West Indies or America has ever been known to have returned to Ireland. Many died, either in passage or from abuse or overwork. Others won their freedom and emigrated to the American colonies. Still others remained in the West Indies, which still contain an population of “Black Irish,” many the descendents of the children of black slaves and Irish slaves.

In 1688, the first woman killed in Cotton Mather’s witch trials in Massachusetts was an old Irish woman named Anne Glover, who had been captured and sold as a slave in 1650. She spoke no English. She could recite The Lord’s Prayer in Gaelic and Latin, but without English,  Mather decided her Gaelic was discourse with the devil, and hung her.(8)

It was not until 1839 that a law was passed in England ending the slave trade, and thus the trade in Irish slaves.

It is unfortunate that, while the descendents of black slaves have kept their history alive and not allowed their atrocity to be forgotten, the Irish heritage of slavery in America and the West Indies has been largely ignored or forgotten. It is my hope that this article will help in some small way to change that and to commemorate these unfortunate people.

NOTES:

(1) John P. Prendergast, The Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland, Dublin, ?, 1865
(2) Ibid.
(3) See, for example, Thomas Addis Emmet, Ireland Under English Rule, NY & London,
Putnam, 1903
(4) Prendergast, The Conwellian Settlment of Ireland
(5) Richard Ligon, A True and Exact History of Barbadoes, London,
Cass, 1657, reprinted 1976
(6)Sean O’Callaghan, To Hell or Barbados: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ireland, (Dingle, Ireland: Brandon, 2001)
(6) James F. Cavanaugh, Clan Chief Herald
(7) For Mather’s account of the case, see Cotton Mather, Memorable Providences, Relating To
Witchcrafts And Possessions (1689)

 

Source : http://www.rhettaakamatsu.com/irishslaves.htm

Piazza of Perfect Love

800px-Piazza_dell'Amor_Perfetto_01

This legend is well suited to the old streets full of history where there is also the square of the love perfect (but also the perfect alley-love).
The story goes that way back  in the summer of 1502 King Louis XII of France arrived in Genoa. His mission was to convince the Doges and noble to help in the fight against Spain. The first rollo had not yet been prepared, but perhaps a similar form of hospitality was already present.
The King during a reception he met with Thomasine which it was love at first sight. King Louis and Tomasina spent the whole night dancing, throwing glances filled with desire. Among them, however, there was only this, because the next morning the king had to leave.
Thomasine was upset by the pain of love so far is locked up in the house for no more out. The months passed, years passed and Thomasine was always there to destroy love for his king.
Hoping somehow to free her from the prison of pain in which he was locked up, the nurse Tomasina gave the false news of the death of Louis XII; it was then that tragedy happened: the heart of Thomasine not had the strength to stand up to a nozia so tragic.
Tomasina died.
When the King returned to Genoa, this time from the enemy, he wanted to go to see the house where Thomasine spent his last moments, and turning his eyes toward one of the windows of the house said, “It could have been a perfect love.”

This is the name that the square still has today.

La leggenda del nome di Piazza dell’Amor perfetto

800px-Piazza_dell'Amor_Perfetto_01

 

Questa leggenda si adatta bene ai vecchi vicoli pieni di storia dove si trova anche la piazzetta dell’amor perfetto (ma anche il vicolo dell’amor perfetto!).
Si narra che nell’estate del lontano 1502 il re di Francia Luigi XII giunse a Genova. La sua missione era di convincere dogi e nobili ad aiutarlo nella lotta contro la Spagna. Il primo rollo non era ancora stato redatto, ma forse una forma simile di ospitalità era già presente.
Il Re durante un ricevimento conobbe Tommasina con cui fu amore a prima vista. Re Luigi e Tomasina trascorsero l’intera serata a ballare, lanciandosi sguardi pieni di desiderio. Tra loro però ci fu solo questo, perchè il mattino successivo il re dovette ripartire.
Tommasina era sconvolta dal dolore dell’amore lontano cosicchè si rinchiuse in casa per non uscirne più. Passavano i mesi, trascorsero gli anni e Tommasina era sempre lì, a distruggersi d’amore per il suo Re.
Sperando in qualche modo di liberarla dalla prigione di dolore nella quale si era rinchiusa, la nutrice di Tomasina le diede la falsa notizia dell’imminente morte di Luigi XII; fu allora che accadde la tragedia: il cuore di Tommasina non ebbe la forza di reggere ad una nozia così tragica.
Tomasina morì.
Quando il Re tornò a Genova, questa volta da nemico, volle recarsi a vedere la casa dove Tommasina trascorse i suoi ultimi istanti, e rivolgendo lo sguardo verso una delle finestre della casa disse: “Avrebbe potuto essere un amor perfetto.”

Questo è il nome che quella piazza ha ancora oggi.